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In terms of the Miss Tonga beauty pageant, the annual contest does not involve a portion of the program that displays the wearing of swimsuits.

In general, modern-day Tongan women work outside the home. They are not obliged to perform manual labor. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article relies largely or entirely on a single source. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please help improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources.

Two modern-day young Tongan women, both dressed with the clothing accessory known as the kiekie or "ornamental girdle ".

Science Technology. Arts Humanities. Popular culture. By country. United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 7 November Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 13 October Tongan Fire Dancer.

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Christian principles characterize the constitution, which very likely was prepared under the influence of Wesleyan Tonga missionaries. George Tupou I transformed Tonga into a modern state, abolishing slavery and the absolute power of chiefs.

Since the last Tu'i Tonga had no official heir, as the head of the other two royal lines, King George became the only king of Tonga.

The constitution recognizes only his royal line. In , the British granted Tonga's request for protectorate status.

In , all powers were restored to the Tongan monarchy. The British protectorate shielded Tonga from other colonizing powers. A spirit of independence and pride was nurtured during the long reign of Queen Salote — , who led the nation into the twentieth century, paying special attention to preserving its heritage.

Because of her vision, Tongan culture is an integral part of the school curriculum. Students learn Tongan history, traditional poetry, music, and dancing, along with wood carving, mat weaving, and bark cloth making.

The first European visitors spoke of a population scattered throughout a densely cultivated land. Now Tongans are concentrated in villages and small towns.

Most villages lie around an empty area, called mala'e , that is used for social gatherings and games. A traditional house stands on a raised platform of stones and sand.

It is oval in shape with a thatched roof and walls of woven palm tree panels. The toilet and the kitchen are in separate huts. Contemporary houses are usually bigger and made of timber with corrugated iron roofs.

Little furniture is used. The simplicity of house architecture contrasts with the monumentality of earlier royal buildings and tombs.

The royal tombs are layered pyramidal structures built of massive stone slabs. The huge Ha'amonga trilithon, made of two stone columns topped with a notched column, was built around C.

One hypothesis suggests that it was the door to the royal compound, and another that it was used for astronomical purposes.

These monuments bear witness to the power of the Tu'i Tonga. They also indicate the sophisticated stone-cutting technology and skills of the ancient craftsmen.

Food in Daily Life. Both in villages and in the main towns, food is the occasion for a family gathering only at the end of the day.

Otherwise, food is consumed freely at any time. The basic staples are root crops like taro accompanied by fried or roasted meat or fish. Taro leaves are one of the various green vegetables used together with a variety of tropical fruits like bananas, pineapples, and mangoes.

Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions. The ritual of kava drinking characterizes both formal and daily events. Kava is prepared by grinding dried roots and mixing the powder with water in a ceremonial bowl.

It is nonalcoholic but slightly narcotic. People sit cross-legged in an elliptical pattern whose long axis is headed by the bowl on one side and by the highest-ranked participant on the other.

The preparation and serving of the drink are done by a young woman, usually but not always the only female participant, or by male specialists. The The royal palace in Nukualofa.

Tonga is a constitutional monarchy. Kava clubs are found in the towns, and kava drinking gatherings take place almost daily in the villages.

Basic Economy. The economy centers on agriculture and fishing. Major exports are vanilla, fish, handicrafts, and pumpkins grown for export to Japan.

King Taufa'ahau Tupou IV has modernized the country's economy. Based largely on foreign aid from New Zealand, Australia, the United States, and the European Community and on imports, this process has created a widespread presence of Western products.

The agricultural base of the economy remains. The tourist industry is growing, and revenues from Tongans working abroad are one of the largest sources of income.

Typical agricultural produce are root crops such as taro, tapioca, sweet potatoes, and yams. Coconuts, bananas, mangoes, papayas, pineapples, watermelons, peanuts, and vegetables are grown.

Pigs and fowl are abundant and free ranging. Cows, sheep, and goats also are present. Intensive shellfishing is conducted along the shores, and there is an abundant fish supply.

Royal visits and funerals call for the preparation of large amounts of food. Roasted piglets are laid in the center of a pola tray made of woven palm tree leaves.

Root crops, meats, and shellfish prepared in the 'umu underground oven are added and garnished with fresh fruits, decorative flowers, ribbons, and balloons.

In villages, food is consumed while one sits on a mat; in towns, tables are used. Land Tenure and Property.

All land is owned by the king, the nobles, and the government. Foreigners cannot own land by constitutional decree.

Owners have the right to sublet land to people who pay a tribute, traditionally food. Every citizen above age 16 is entitled to lease eight and a quarter acres of land from the government for a small sum, but the growing population and its concentration in the capital make it increasingly difficult to exercise this right.

Classes and Castes. Traditional society had at its top the ha'a tu'i kings , followed by the hou'eiki chiefs , ha'a matapule talking chiefs , kau mu'a would-be talking chiefs , and kau tu'a commoners.

All titles were heritable and followed the male line of descent almost exclusively. This hierarchical social structure is still essentially in place.

Tribute to the chiefs was paid twice a year. Agricultural produce and gifts such as butchered animals, bark cloth, and mats were formally offered to the Tu'i Tonga and, through him, to the gods in an elaborate ceremony called 'inasi.

The king now visits all the major islands at least once a year on the occasion of the Royal Agriculture Show. The gift giving and formalities at the show closely resemble those of the 'inasi.

The constitution eliminated the title of chief and introduced the title of nopele noble , which was given to thirty-three traditional chiefs.

Only nobles and the king are now entitled to own and distribute land. An increasingly market-oriented economy and an expanding bureaucracy have recently added a middle class that runs the gamut from commoners to chiefs.

Newly acquired wealth, however, does not easily overcome social barriers rooted in history. Often claims to higher social status are established by claiming kinship to holders of aristocratic titles.

The Kingdom of Tonga is a constitutional monarchy. The constitution prescribes a legislative assembly with twenty members representing the thirty-three nobles and twenty members elected as people's representatives.

In , both groups were reduced to nine each. Twelve other members are appointed by the king: ten Cabinet members including the prime minister, who is also the governor of Tongatapu, and the governors of Ha'apai and Vava'u.

In the election, six of the people's representatives belonged to the new Pro-Democracy Movement that in became the Democratic Party founded by 'Akilisi Pohiva.

The kingdom is divided into districts, each headed by a district officer. Every three years, each village elects a town officer who represents the government and holds village meetings fono where government regulations are made known.

Every villager above 16 years of age is entitled to attend. People do not take part in the decision-making process but show approval or dissent through their implementation of the instructions.

Every citizen is entitled to free primary education, a plot of land at age 16, and free medical care. Hospitals, dispensaries, and pharmacies are distributed over the territory.

Smaller government clinics are present in some villages in the outer islands. To support the modernization of the country, in the Tongan Development Bank was established.

Financed by the World Bank and contributions from New Zealand and Australia, it provides low-interest loans for entrepreneurs.

Foreigners who want to invest in the country need a Tongan partner for any economic venture. The U. Peace Corps, the Japanese Overseas Cooperation Volunteers, and development organizations connected with the British, New Zealand, and Australian governments are among the active aid agencies.

They work in the fields of education, health, agriculture, and entrepreneurship. Division of Labor by Gender.

The introduction of wage labor in twentieth century privileged men, altering an equilibrium between genders that had lasted for centuries.

Cash is now an element of wealth, and wage-earning men have easier access to it. However, the old egalitarian attitude toward the two sexes has not been altered by economic and technological changes.

In contemporary offices, shops, and banks, working women are prominent. In villages, most men take care of the land or tend animals.

Women weave mats and make bark cloth. Both women and men actively participate in parenting. Food preparation is shared between the male and female members of a family.

The preparation of the 'umu underground oven , now restricted to Sundays and special occasions, is an almost exclusive male activity.

Older children help with activities and household chores. The Relative Status of Women and Men. The hierarchical system's emphasis on the higher status of females guarantees an equal role in society for females and males in spite of the fact that men usually inherit titles and land.

There are no explicit rules for marriage, and couples are formed through reciprocal free choice. Pronounced social stratification discourages marriages between people of vastly different social status.

Divorce is legal and not uncommon. During a wedding, the two kainga involved exchange mats, bark cloth, and food. On the day of the ceremony, the bride and groom "wear their wealth.

Tonga has an almost universal rate of literacy. Kin Groups. Kinship ties are of paramount importance.

The two major kin groups are famili family and kainga extended family. The 'ulumotu'a head of the family presides over this group.

A kainga consists of relatives living in different households in the same village or in several villages. They are related by bilateral relationships of consanguinity in a cognatic system.

Membership in kin groups is restricted to fewer and closer relatives than it was in the past. The parameters in establishing hierarchy at any level of society are gender and age.

A female is always considered higher in rank than a male. Inheritance of land and titles goes through the male line, and primogeniture rule usually is enforced.

Because of traditional brother-sister avoidance, year-old boys sleep in a separate house. Though avoidance is less strictly enforced now, it still affects daily life.

Topics such as sex and activities such as watching videos are not shared between brothers and sisters. Infant Care and Child Rearing.

The birth of a child is among the most important events, but the official social introduction of a child to the community is celebrated only at the end of a child's first year.

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The game is played in the Fale Faka-Kolo to protect the mats, which are made with a finer weave than everyday household mats.

For centuries it has been a common tradition and is still often used today as a ceremonial drink before the start of important meetings and functions.

Kava is made from the dried root of the piper methysticum plant, which is a member of the pepper family. Reports that it is mildly narcotic or intoxicating are not correct in reference to traditional, plain kava; although the beverage has a slight numbing effect, which is why it has been used in Europe and other places in pill form as a stress-reducing agent.

A recent scare that such kava pills could cause liver damage resulted from pharmaceutical companies including other parts of the plant in the mix, whereas Polynesians have only used the roots for centuries.

Polynesian men would pull the root and branches from the ground and wash the dirt off, scrape off the outer skin and allow the plant to thoroughly dry out.

In most cases a portion of the root would be ground up with the appropriate stone pounders until it is roughly in powder form.

Special carved wooden bowls, such as the ones displayed at the Polynesian Cultural Center, would be used to mix the kava with water.

To obtain the clearest liquid possible, a strainer made from the tangled fibers of wild hibiscus bark is used to filter the particles. The strainer is squeezed dry and shaken outside to remove any unwanted particles.

The process is repeated until the kava is ready to be served in a half-coconut shell cup. Medicinally, Tongans would use kava as a headache remedy, to alleviate pulmonary pains, to treat diseases such as gonorrhea, blackwater fever, tuberculosis, leprosy, cancer, asthma, stomach upsets and insomnia.

Kava also helps fight contagions to minimize the risks of infections. Due to the ceremonial importance of kava, there are several important myths related to it, one of which goes like this: One day the king of Tonga went fishing with his men.

They did not catch anything and were hungry. They stopped at an island where a couple and their daughter named Kava lived. The girl had leprosy.

Because there was a famine in the land and there was nothing for the king and his men to eat, Kava suggested to her parents that they kill and bake her for the king and his party.

After feasting and then discovering this sacrifice, the king was deeply moved. They did so and two plants grew on the grave: a kava plant grew from the head and sugar cane grew from the feet.

One day a Tongan hero by the name of Loau came to the island and the couple told him all that had happened.

Loau told them to take the two plants to the king, who would instruct them what to do with the kava…which is how the kava ceremony came to Tonga.

Keeping the myth in mind, we can now understand that kava symbolizes sacrifice, diplomacy, and renewal to the Tongans. Kava was willing to die to save her parents from the needs and demands of the king.

Her body represents its use as a medium for making peace. It is interesting to note that in Tonga today, the kava ceremony represents the best way to bring together families and groups in times of contention.

In Tongan protocol, a formal kava ceremony can be utilized as an opportunity for Tongans to forgive, save face, and re-establish respect.

When kava is first tasted, it is bitter; but soon the effects of the roots bring calmness, which also represents renewal. Tongans recognize the importance of kava: It is a tradition which the Tongans, from royalty to commoners, appreciate and practice knowledgeably and respectfully.

Each of the Polynesian islands makes bark cloth with their respective traditions. For example, some Polynesians make it out of breadfruit tree bark or banyan tree bark.

In Tonga ngatu is almost always made from the inner bark of the paper mulberry tree. While making ngatu is the traditional work of women, Tongan men have the responsibility to grow the plants.

During the growing period they will carefully prune excess leaves and branches in order to eliminate notches which may mar the overall quality of the tapa.

It takes approximately two years for the trees to reach the best height and width for ngatu making. Once the branches are cut, they are left in a shady place for up to a week.

Then the bark is carefully nicked and slowly stripped from the branch. The outer bark is peeled away leaving the creamy-colored inner bark, which is soaked in water for up to a day according to the desire of the crafter.

After a bark strip has been stretched to its maximum width, it is laid aside and pounding begins on another two-inch-wide length of bark.

In order to have a bed-sized piece of ngatu, quite a few strips must be glued together. A small tapioca root is used to make the glue: Tongans harvest the right-sized roots, boil them until they are half-cooked and let them cool.

The women lay all the pieces of the first layer in the same direction, then they gently rub the tapioca over the layer. When it is completely covered, a second layer is placed over the first, but with the new strips running cross-wise.

This strengthens the ngatu by giving it a warp and woof. This process is continued until the desired size is reached.

Sometimes there are holes in the ngatu where knots occurred in the tree branch. The women eliminate these by cutting little patches and gluing them over the defects.

Once the ngatu is glued together and patched, the women prepare it for imprinting traditional Tongan designs using a clever die, or a design mat called the kupesi.

The women make the stiff base of the kupesi from a fiber-like part of coconut blossoms to which they have sewn coconut leaf midribs in the desired pattern.

Because they use kupesi over and over again the edges are nicely finished. To imprint the design, they place the kupesi underneath the blank bark cloth.

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